Select Page

Preventive Maintenance: How to Create a Plan & Checklist for a Basic PM Program

Preventive maintenance enhances the reliability of machinery, reduces downtime, and achieves cost-saving advance scheduling and other important tools. In this article, we will learn how to create a plan and checklist for a basic preventive maintenance program.

(No credit card required)

Preventive Maintenance Check


Angezeigte Bewertungen bei Google für die Timly Inventarverwaltung Software


Proven Expert Bewertungen für die Timly Inventarverwaltung Software


Bewertungen auf Capterra für die Timly Inventarverwaltung Software

Key Takeaways:

  • Preventive maintenance is a proactive approach to maintaining machinery and facilities, reducing breakdowns and unplanned downtime through early issue detection.
  • There are three main types of preventive maintenance: condition-based, time-based, and usage-based, each with varying schedules and tasks depending on the asset’s condition and usage.
  • Preventive maintenance offers numerous benefits, including increased efficiency, reduced downtime, prolonged equipment lifespan, and improved safety, ultimately leading to cost savings and enhanced productivity.

In This Article:

What Is Preventive Maintenance? Definition and Importance

It is important to understand that preventive maintenance is essential. To fully grasp this, we need to look at its role in managing equipment and prolonging their lifespan through proactive methods to maintain machinery and facilities. Preventive maintenance helps minimize the occurrence of unwanted breakdowns and repairs. This in turn helps prevent unplanned downtime as early detection helps resolve issues before they become a serious problem.

PM is important for machinery and operations because it:

  • Increases Efficiency: By performing regular maintenance, companies can ensure that their machines and equipment continue functioning at optimal levels. This saves energy and improves performance.
  • Reduces Downtime: Regular maintenance helps identify and address potential issues before they become problems. This minimizes downtime, which could potentially impact revenue.
  • Provide Better Safety: Regular maintenance helps identify potential risks and hazards. This helps mitigate accidental risks and provide a safer working environment.

Preventive Maintenance Meaning

There are two types of maintenance, the first is preventive maintenance on equipment, and the other is preventative maintenance.

Preventive maintenance is when equipment or assets are regularly maintained to ensure reliable performance. This involves performing maintenance checks such as cleaning, inspecting, and ensuring lubricating equipment and machinery to prevent failures and the risk of downtime. This type of maintenance typically occurs after the equipment has been in operation for around 100 hours or within 6 months, whichever comes first.

However, preventative maintenance focuses on determining what issues the equipment and machinery may face, thereby forecasting potential issues that may arise. This is because every piece of machinery operates differently and has its own operating conditions. Predictive maintenance considers these factors to anticipate and address potential failures.

What Are the Main Types of Preventive Maintenance?

There are three types of preventive maintenance (PM), which are condition-based, time-based, and usage-based. Let’s see how each of these maintenance strategies varies in terms of schedule and tasks.

  • Condition-based preventive maintenance: This is when the actual condition of the equipment warrants maintenance. It is beneficial to know asset management strategies where assets are known to experience wear over time.
  • Time-based predictive maintenance: Performed at fixed intervals regardless of assets current condition. For example, maintenance may be scheduled after 10,000 hours of operational service or every six months.
  • Usage-based predictive maintenance: This maintenance is tied to the number of hours or the duration the asset has been used.It involves calculating and determining, based on the asset’s performance, when the equipment has reached its operational threshold.

Over 500 Companies, Schools and Cities Rely on Timly

Inventarverwaltung Software Siemens Logo
Inventarverwaltung Software Sodastream Logo
Inventar Management Software Panasonic Logo
Inventarverwaltung Software Isar Aerospace Logo
Inventarverwaltung Software Euromaster Logo
Asset Management Software BASF Logo
Inventory Management Software Philips Logo
Inventory Management Software IHK Logo
Inventarverwaltung Software Uni Bern Logo
Inventory Management Software Siemens Logo
Asset Management Software Sodastream Logo
Inventar Management Software Panasonic Logo
Asset Management Software Isar Aerospace Logo
Inventory Management Software Euromaster Logo
Asset Management Software BASF Logo
Inventory Management Software Philips Logo
Inventory Management Software IHK Logo
Inventarverwaltung Software Uni Bern Logo

(No credit card required)

Principles and Elements of a PM Program

To understand the principles and elements of a preventive maintenance program, let us look at the key components that work cohesively to achieve these goals. They are:

  • Predictive maintenance focuses on using data and sensors to monitor the performance of equipment to predict when it’s time to schedule maintenance. This is a proactive method rather than a reactive method.
  • Total productive maintenance involves everyone, from stakeholders to maintenance managers to technicians. It ensures a collaborative approach to proper equipment upkeep.
  • Condition-based maintenance is an approach in which equipment is monitored and maintenance is conducted based on the equipment condition.
  • Scheduled maintenance is a preventative measure that ensures equipment is properly maintained. The maintenance is based on a predetermined schedule.

As for the principles of maintenance, the following are measures that need to be taken into consideration:

  • Total buy-in: When implementing preventive maintenance, it is essential to obtain buy-in from stakeholders. Furthermore, it is essential to identify and discuss goals, skill sets, and resources with each team.
  • Equipment history: Maintaining records of equipment history in terms of maintenance and performance is important. This allows one to identify trends, analyze metrics, and schedule preventive maintenance to optimize the asset management lifecycle phases of the equipment.
  • Reliability engineering: By utilizing state-of-the art analysis and data mining, one can learn and identify the root causes of system failures and develop solutions to address them.
  • Maintenance planning: This is important to ensure proper prevention strategies are in place such as scheduling, prioritizing, and allocating resources.
  • Training and education: All staff must be provided the necessary training and education to understand the importance of maintenance management software.
Preventive Maintenance

What Assets Require Preventive Maintenance?

It is important that preventive maintenance is conducted on various assets and equipment to ensure they function properly. Here are some examples of assets that would benefit from preventive maintenance:

  • Machines and Equipment: In industry, assets such as pumps, compressors, and generators require regular maintenance. This helps to ensure smooth operations and reduce any unwanted breakdown.
  • HVAC Systems: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems require regular maintenance to maintain air quality, conserve energy, and reduce repair costs.
  • Automotive Vehicles: Cars, trucks, and other types of vehicles require regular maintenance to ensure safe operation, extend lifespan, and minimize breakdowns.

The Timly maintenance management software in use at HAUSER Austria

Timly Inventarverwaltung Software Kunden - ARGE
Timly Maintenance Management Software

Everything Under Control With One Solution – The Intuitive Maintenance Management Software

(No credit card required)

How To Write A PM Maintenance Plan

If you are interested in writing a preventive maintenance plan, then you can begin by identifying the necessary goals and objectives. This will help you identify what tasks need to be added to the plan. Here are a few steps:

  • Start by defining the scope.
  • Determine frequency of maintenance.
  • Find out who or which department will be responsible for performing these tasks.
  • Create a schedule that will outline each and specify how it is performed.
  • Finally, ensure that the plan is regularly monitored and reviewed.

How to Create a Preventive Management Checklist

In order to create a preventive management checklist, follow these steps:

  • Gather information regarding which equipment, machinery, or assets need to be scheduled for maintenance. Ensure that the information collected includes details about their usage, operating conditions, and recommendations from the manufacturer.
  • Set goals for desired outcomes you would like to see from the preventive maintenance program. Make sure these goals are aligned with the company’s objectives.
  • Assign specific maintenance responsibilities to team members or technicians who are familiar with the equipment and operations.
  • Create a template or spreadsheet to organize your checklist. The columns should include information such as equipment name, maintenance tasks, maintenance frequency, due date, team or personnel responsible, and any relevant comments. You could use a digitized checklist, like a maintenance management system, to streamline the information and make it easily accessible to teams.

How Much Does Preventive Maintenance Cost?

The costs of preventive maintenance depend on the type of equipment, industry, and the frequency of maintenance. Here’s a general understanding of how much preventive maintenance costs for certain equipment within their respective industry.

The average median tied to maintenance could range from USD 211 to USD 222 billion. This is due to preventive maintenance lowering unplanned downtime by 48.5% and provides significant cost savings.

Some industries estimate that predictive maintenance can provide savings of USD 200 million to USD 600 billion in manufacturing.

Though the exact cost of preventive maintenance can vary depending on the industry, it is understood that it can provide significant cost saving benefits, reduce downtime, and increase productivity.

How Often Should Preventive Maintenance Be Performed?

Preventive maintenance should be performed by considering several factors, including usage, age, and type of equipment. If we are dealing with heavy machinery, then it needs to be serviced more frequently than machinery that is hardly used. For example, it is often recommended to change the oil in a car every 3,000 miles, regardless of driving conditions.

Moreover, regular inspections are necessary, considering the failure developing period (FDP), which is the time between the initial failure and breakdown. For instance, if a pump starts cavitating at 6 am and breaks down at 6 pm, six 6 days later, the failure developing period would be 156 hours. The frequency of inspection would be FDP/2, resulting in 78 hours.

In addition, some equipment requires time-based preventive maintenance. This includes regular inspections and part replacements. For example, time-based preventive maintenance could involve changing air filters every 3 months. The goal is to find the balance between performing maintenance too frequently or neglecting inspections, which would lead to equipment failure.

Timly Asset Management Software GDPR
Timly Asset Management Software Secure Hosting
Timly Asset Management Software SSL Encrypted

Software and Tools for Maintenance Management

When selecting software and tools for maintenance management, companies should consider options that help manage and optimize their operations.Here are some tools that could help:

  • Asset Essentials: This software helps provide security and compliance planning. It provides metrics and supports EH&S documentation.
  • Axxerion: This tool provides preventive, corrective, and predictive maintenance. It serves as an enterprise asset management (EAM) system, which is used to track equipment.
  • Timly’s CMMS System: This cloud-solution reminds users of upcoming maintenance dates, provides easy maintenance planning, and helps track defects and performance.

Common Preventive Maintenance Challenges

Though preventive maintenance helps improve efficiency and reliability for equipment use, it presents its own challenges. These include:

  • Time and Resources: This requires planning, scheduling, budgeting, and allocating personnel, which can be time-consuming.
  • Balancing Maintenance With Production: As preventive maintenance often requires the shutting down or removal of equipment, it’s essential to ensure minimal disruption to production.
  • Data Management: Maintaining data and information related to asset performance and maintenance can be challenging. This can pose an issue for large-scale operations.

Benefits of Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance must be conducted frequently to ensure the longevity and efficiency of equipment, facilities, and systems. By implementing preventive maintenance strategies, you can realize many benefits, such as cost savings, improved productivity, and better performance. Here are some benefits of preventive maintenance:

  • Asset Lifespan: Regular maintenance extends the equipment’s lifespan and reduces the need for early replacement. This helps mitigate unwanted costs.
  • Equipment Reliability: Preventive maintenance ensures optimum functionality, reduces the number of breakdowns and downtime.
  • Maintenance Costs: You will be able to save costs by proactively addressing issues, which reduces the number of repairs and replacements.
  • Enhanced Safety: Enforcing preventive maintenance reduces the risk of accidents and injuries by identifying hazards before they become an issue.
  • Increased Productivity: By having equipment that is running smoothly, companies can increase their production levels.

What Are the Limitations of PM Maintenance?

As seen, there are many benefits to preventive maintenance. It provides efficiency by reducing downtime and extending the longevity of the equipment. However, there are certain limitations to PM.

  • Costs: Preventive maintenance can be quite costly. Thus, small businesses may struggle due to their limited budget. Hence, utilizing or investing in a CMMS or other known tools could be an issue due to cost.
  • Resources: Businesses that are new or growing may face challenges in implementing preventive maintenance, as it requires extra staffing, spare parts, and time.
  • Budget: You may need to provide an upfront payment, which can be a problem for companies with a limited budget.
  • Scheduling: An inaccurate maintenance schedule lead to unwanted downtime or missed maintenance opportunities.

Get Started Now – With Digital Maintenance Management Software!

(No credit card required)

Frequently Asked Questions About Preventive Maintenance

What Is Preventive Maintenance?

Preventive maintenance helps reduce the rate of unwanted breakdowns and repairs, thereby reducing the rate of unplanned downtime. Early detection allows for solving problems before they become severe, ensuring equipment operates efficiently and reliably.

How to Create a Preventive Management Checklist

To create a preventive maintenance checklist, follow these steps:

  • Gather information regarding which equipment, machinery, or assets need to be scheduled for maintenance. Ensure that the information collected includes details about their usage, operating conditions, and recommendations from the manufacturer.
  • Set goals for desired outcomes you would like to see from the preventive maintenance program. Make sure these goals are aligned with the company’s objectives.
  • Assign specific maintenance responsibilities to team members or technicians who are familiar with the equipment and operations.
  • Create a template or spreadsheet to organize your checklist. The columns should include information such as equipment name, maintenance tasks, maintenance frequency, due date, team or personnel responsible, and any relevant comments.. You could use a digitized checklist, like a maintenance management system, to streamline the information the information and make it easily accessible to teams.

The Inventory Software for Your Success

A wide range of intelligent functions allows you to easily manage your entire company’s inventory. Try Timly asset tracking software now for free and see how easy it is to save time and resources.

Manage All Assets

Whether IT resources, tools, machines, vehicle fleet, furniture or contracts: everything in Timly.

Mobile Available Everywhere

Localise your assets with the integrated barcode scanner for smartphones & tablets.

Clever Assignment

Easily assign assets to people, projects, rooms, locations or external service providers.

Digital File Management

Digitally store important information, files, documents, audit trails & contacts for your assets.

GPS Recording

Save the exact GPS location of your assets with one scan. All GPS data historically verifiable.

Maintenance Management

Documentation of repairs & maintenance at the asset location, as well as deadline management.

Recommended for You:

Timly 2024 Rebranding Reveal 5

Timly 2024 Rebranding Reveal

This year marks Timly's fourth anniversary, and what better way to start a new and exciting chapter than refreshing our brand to reflect our DNA and bold vision for the future? Join us as we unveil our new bran...

Jun 25, 2024


How to Optimise and Manage IT Assets

This article explores how you can optimise and manage IT assets with smart software tools. Find out how to get the most of your IT equipment and increase your ROI, how to improve your maintenance processes and ...

Dec 15, 2023

Timly perpetual inventory system intro image

Perpetual Inventory System : Advantages and Disadvantages

A perpetual inventory system simplifies and enhances the accuracy of the often challenging annual stocktaking process. This piece looks at its pros and cons, highlighting the indispensable role of cloud solutio...

Dec 14, 2023

Inventory Management Software

Best Inventory Management Software: Must-Have Features

Explore how to make inventory management software part of your business's digital transformation. Includes a brief guide on the best must-have features of inventory software, its many applications and benefits,...

Dec 10, 2023

Timly CMMS Software Intro Image

What is CMMS and Does Your Business Need CMMS Software

Explore how CMMS software solutions help you keep an inventory of all of your company’s assets - digital or physical - and keep on top of maintenance schedules and logs. Includes a brief buying guide.

Nov 28, 2023

GPS Software Asset Tracking Timly Intro Image

GPS Software and Its Use in Asset Tracking

GPS asset tracking ensures quick access to vital business equipment, streamlines processes and dramatically cuts down on theft and loss. The result? Significant cost savings and smoother operations.

Nov 21, 2023

Software Maintenance with Timly Intro Image

Software Maintenance: Strategies and Best Practices

An effective 360° software maintenance system is critical for protecting your business and ensuring legal compliance. Explore the strategies and best practices for implementing the right system.

Nov 13, 2023

Health and Safety Documentation Timly Intro Image

Health and Safety Documentation: What You Need to Know

For any business in the UK with more than five employees, it's essential to have in place a comprehensive set of workplace health and safety documentation. By keeping these documents in a designated health and ...

Oct 27, 2023


The Journey Continues: Timly Welcomes Lansweeper on Board

We are thrilled to unveil our newest partnership with Lansweeper, a market leader in automated IT inventory and network management. This collaboration bolsters Timly's 360° asset management solution, offering ...

Oct 11, 2023

Timly Maintenance Tracker Intro Image

Timly’s Digital Maintenance Tracker: Always Available

A smart maintenance tracker is primarily used to document the maintenance measures carried out on machines and plants in companies. It is thus one of numerous necessary measures in tool and machine management.

Oct 3, 2023

EHS Management Software Timly in action Intro Image

Benefits of an Intuitive EHS Management Software

Occupational safety and health management is an important step in companies. Smart EHS management software makes it easier to keep track of all necessary regulations, safety checks, and inspection dates.

Sep 8, 2023

Mobile Device Management with Timly Intro Image

Restructure Mobile Device Management With Software

Mobile device management is more complex than it might seem at first glance. At the same time, it is becoming more and more important, as smartphones and tablets now occupy a key position in corporate communica...

Sep 8, 2023

Barcode Warehouse Management with Timly Intro Image

Using Barcode Warehouse Management System With Smart App

Using a barcode warehouse management system initially sounds like a small, possibly incidental detail. On closer inspection, a barcode system with the right software creates important conditions for making work...

Sep 4, 2023

Tool Management Solution Timly Intro Image

Tool Management Solution: Software Ensures Order

Finding the right tool management is an important topic in trade and industry. If necessary tools are not available, this usually has unpleasant consequences. Work processes come to a standstill, deadlines are ...

Aug 22, 2023

Simple Stock Management Intro Image

Implement Simple Stock Management With Timly

Simple stock management is one of the most important prerequisites for effective work processes in companies. Consumables and working materials must always be available in sufficient quantities to be able to fu...

Aug 22, 2023

Software Licence Management with Timly Intro Image

Effective Software Licence Management With Timly

Software licence management is increasingly becoming a challenge in IT departments. Many manufacturers of commercial software are moving away from the model of lifetime licences that can be purchased once and t...

Aug 4, 2023

Supply Management with Timly Intro Image

Organize Supply Management Easily – With Timly

A functioning supply management is of enormous importance in modern companies in order to carry out cost calculations and inventory management. This helps companies save money and time.

Jul 25, 2023

Tool Maintenance Software done by workers on laptop

Simplify Your Life With Tool Maintenance Software

Using specialised tool maintenance software solves a handful of familiar problems in many companies. These include requirements such as personal allocation to employees, scheduling maintenance and inspection ap...

May 19, 2023

Timly App Inventory Management shown by two people using computers

App Inventory Management: Maintaining Permanent Control

App inventory management is a logical step towards practicality and user-friendliness. Employees are used to receiving necessary information via a smartphone from their private environment. Most people carry th...

May 16, 2023

Cloud-Based Inventory Management Timly Intro Image Blog

Cloud Based Inventory Management: Easy & Smart With Timly

Cloud-based inventory management is increasingly becoming the standard in companies of all sizes and in all sectors of the economy. The obligation to draw up the entire inventory of the business and to update t...

May 16, 2023

Maintenance Planning on Site with Timly

Professional Maintenance Planning With Timly

Maintenance planning is an important topic in industry and trade. Machines and tools must be in working order. Breakdowns cost time, cause stress and ultimately lead to costs. Clever maintenance management not ...

Apr 21, 2023

Employee checks stock levels with warehouse management system via app

Creating a Smart Warehouse Management System With Timly

Increasingly, a dynamic warehouse management system is replacing the classic warehousing that was common in many companies for decades. There, the warehouse foreman had sole responsibility for incoming and outg...

Mar 23, 2023

CMMS - With Timly on the Way to Maintenance 4.0 18

CMMS – With Timly on the Way to Maintenance 4.0

Truly effective maintenance management (CMMS) can only be implemented with software specifically designed for this purpose. Modern inventory solutions such as Timly follow the holistic approach. With consistent...

Mar 21, 2023

Making Inventory Simple With Software 24

Making Inventory Simple With Software

Conscious use of resources offers real added value for companies. While cost factors have already been optimised in many areas, there is often still potential for savings in inventory management. Last but not l...

Feb 17, 2023

Testing and Marking of Portable Equipment 25

Testing and Marking of Portable Equipment

They are used in every business and are considered indispensable tools - we are talking about portable electrical equipment. However, due to their versatile areas of application, they also have decisive disadva...

Feb 16, 2023

Innovative Inventory Software With Barcode Scanner 26

Innovative Inventory Software With Barcode Scanner

Each type of inventory has its advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, however, all are labour-intensive and have the potential to disrupt business operations. Timly has addressed this problem by integrating ...

Feb 14, 2023

Innovative Self-Inventory for the Home Office 27

Innovative Self-Inventory for the Home Office

If employees are no longer regularly in the office, it is more difficult to keep track of the materials and equipment. Previous inventory procedures are often no longer adequate now, due to manual counting proc...

Feb 8, 2023

Safety Officer Tasks: Management by Software 31

Safety Officer Tasks: Management by Software

The safety officer tasks are diverse, regardless of whether a company speaks of an EHS manager, safety master or specialist for occupational safety. Keeping an eye on all devices, machines and systems as well a...

Dec 7, 2022

Safe use of ladders with Timly

Safe Use of Ladders: The Digital Checklist

Ladders and steps are everyday and important auxiliary objects and work equipment in many other companies. However, they are usually in heavy use, so that wear and damage are difficult to avoid. Regular ladder ...

Nov 9, 2022

Timly's maintenance app in use at a construction site

What A Good Maintenance App Can Do

Many companies only realise that maintenance software is needed when it is too late: an important order is due, but the relevant machine suddenly makes suspicious noises. An official letter announces that inspe...

Nov 4, 2022

Inventory software IT on a screen

Inventory Software: Effectively Manage IT Assets

In this blog post, we would like to show you how you can best manage IT inventory of all kinds with inventory software. Whether in the office, in the warehouse or in the field... you encounter it everywhere. We...

Nov 4, 2022

IT inventory Excel on a laptop

IT Inventory: Excel as a Useful Solution?

You want to get away from device management with paper lists or magnetic boards? Or do you not yet have a structured and documented overview of your hardware and software? - Then an IT inventory Excel may seem ...

Nov 4, 2022

IT inventory software by Timly

IT Inventory: Software to Manage Your IT Equipment

In order to find software for the increasingly complex IT inventory, many companies ask themselves questions such as "Is there an inventory programme that employees with Windows and Linux can use equally?" or "...

Nov 4, 2022

Tool management with Timly

Timly Tool Software – As Professional as Your Company

Especially in industry and trade, companies need an almost unmanageable number of tools and machines. This is made more difficult by the fact that the work equipment is used at different locations and by changi...

Nov 3, 2022

Inventory database in inventory software

The Advantages of an Inventory Database

Deadlines, equipment locations, statistics and other inventory data are always in demand. But where is the best place to keep a company's object data? - In an inventory software. The heart of such software is t...

Nov 3, 2022

Deadline management with Timly software

Deadline Management With Software: Everything at a Glance

Deadline management is a real challenge in modern companies, as it is difficult to keep track of which tools are in use. Thanks to Timly's software employees have a good overview over their tools and certificat...

Nov 3, 2022

Tool maintenance with Timly Software

Tool Maintenance With Smart Software

Managing tools and machines in a construction company requires a good overview and, above all, time. But with a software for tool maintenance, this is very uncomplicated and fast. Everything is recorded digital...

Nov 1, 2022

IT documentation made easy with Timly

IT Documentation With Modern Inventory Software

IT documentation ensures that increasingly scarce and expensive IT resources are used effectively. This does not mean network plans in which IP addresses, network names and address spaces are documented. Rather...

Oct 31, 2022

Ladder regulations easily managed with Timly

Ladder Regulations – Keeping Track of Current Rules

Movable work equipment such as steps and ladders have a high accident risk, so companies are obliged to check them regularly. Ladder inspections must be correctly documented not only where the German statutory ...

Oct 26, 2022

Create an inventory for your company assets

Create an Inventory: Easy With the Right Software

Modern inventory software can create an inventory practically all year round. It ensures that there is an overview of material inventory goods at all times in an efficient manner. It also manages inspection and...

Oct 21, 2022

Digitally Manage Inventory in Schools with Timly Software 32

Digitally Manage Inventory in Schools with Timly Software

After the application process, many administrators or headmasters realise that with new equipment, networks, licences and contracts come expanded management needs. So it takes a good management strategy to keep...

Oct 21, 2022

Maintenance software free in use at a company

Maintenance Software: Free Versions Available?

There is a cross-industry problem that can lead to safety risks and financial losses: The inefficient management of maintenance and inspection schedules. Complex inventory, such as machinery or equipment, can b...

Oct 20, 2022

Inventory number for efficient asset management

What Is an Inventory Number?

The inventory number is small and inconspicuous, but it is very important. Without it, a lot can quickly go wrong because it ensures order and traceability. For example, if you find a piece of equipment in the ...

Oct 19, 2022

A man on a computer using free inventory management software

Free Inventory Management: Can It Be Done in the Cloud?

A well-organised company is automatically a successful company. Companies depend on having an overview of all resources, work equipment, materials and the entire inventory. This is because the inventory represe...

Oct 19, 2022